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Post Graduate Diploma in Translation Studies
UNIT 411 - 2 : TRANSLATION THEORY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
  Points to Remember  
411.2.2.2 : FOUNDING ISSUES AND CATEGORIES
With this background of Translation Studies, a brief mention of the central issues that govern translation studies will be made in the following paragraphs. A detailed discussion of these concepts will be taken up in the units that will follow later. Susan Bassnett-McGuire [1980: 13-38] has discussed these concepts in her book in great detail.
411.2.2.2.1: TYPES OF TRANSLATION
a) In his famous essay "On Linguistic aspects of Translation" Roman Jakobson identifies three types of translation:
1. Intralingual translation or rewording. In which the verbal signs of language are replaced/interpreted by the verbal signs available in the same language. For example prose rendering of a poem in the same language.
2. Interlingual translation or translation proper. In which the verbal signs of one language are interpreted / replaced by the verbal signs of another language.
3. Intersemiotic translation. In which the interpretation of verbal signs are done by means of nonverbal sign system.
Of the three, Translation studies concerns itself with the second type where the message is transferred from the SL to the TL. (In Brower 1959: 232-39)
b) John Dryden (1631-1700) divided translation into three basic categories:
1. Metaphrase or word for word translation.
2. Paraphrase or sentence to sentence translation.
3. Imitation or loose approximation of an author's emotions or passion. (In Bassnett 1980: 60)
Dryden calls the paraphrase method of translation, which is in between the two extremes as the best method of translation. He considers metaphrase to be the least desirable method of translation. He says on many occasions the imitation method, the third of his categories, could become inevitable. Therefore, as Mary Snell-Hornby (1988) identifies correctly, Dryden's theoretical concept is not a symmetrical trichotomy but a flexible system of categories. [P.12]
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